How to fix slow shutdown / restart of Ubuntu 18.04

Sometimes, Ubuntu 18.04 system hangs or takes a very long time to shutdown.

supervisor process manager takes a long time to reboot ubuntu 18.04

We can fix this by editing the system.conf file.

Go here and edit. before edit take this file for backup.

$ sudo nano /etc/systemd/system.conf

uncomment the ChangeTimeoutStopSec=90s and Change the DefaultTimeoutStopSec section to around 4 or 5 seconds.


Save the file, and reboot. 🙂

How to install Whatsapp on Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop

How to install WhatsApp on Ubuntu Desktop

Now you can install WhatsApp on your Ubuntu machine. This is really happy news for ubuntu lovers.

Here is the simple steps to install WhatsApp on your ubuntu-desktop.

Download the WhatsApp web application file. Click here

After the download completes go the downloaded folder and run this command

sudo dpkg -i whatsapp-webapp_1.0_all.deb


Selecting previously unselected package whatsapp-webapp.
(Reading database ... 283713 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack whatsapp-webapp_1.0_all.deb ...
Unpacking whatsapp-webapp (1.0) ...
Setting up whatsapp-webapp (1.0) ...
Processing triggers for mime-support (3.60ubuntu1) ...
  • Now press ALT+F and type WhatsApp

  • Now Scan the QR code with your phone using the WhatsApp application.

  • After scanning the QR code you will be logged in to your WhatsApp account and be able to use WhatsApp on your desktop.

How to Ghost a boot-able sd card to another sd card

How to make a bootable sd card to make an another sd card and backup the sd card image

It is very simple way to take the back up the bootable sd card using linux operating system.

plug the sd card to your computer using sd card reader.

[ 31.556064] usb 2-2: new high-speed USB device number 3 using ehci-pci
[ 31.688949] usb 2-2: New USB device found, idVendor=12d1, idProduct=14fe
[ 31.688956] usb 2-2: New USB device strings: Mfr=2, Product=1, SerialNumber=0
[ 31.688959] usb 2-2: Product: HUAWEI Mobile
[ 31.688962] usb 2-2: Manufacturer: HUAWEI
[ 31.767838] usb-storage 2-2:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
[ 31.767930] scsi6 : usb-storage 2-2:1.0
[ 31.768030] usb-storage 2-2:1.1: USB Mass Storage device detected
[ 31.768221] scsi7 : usb-storage 2-2:1.1
[ 31.768290] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[ 32.764712] scsi 6:0:0:0: CD-ROM HUAWEI Mass Storage 2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
[ 32.768079] sr1: scsi-1 drive
[ 32.768383] sr 6:0:0:0: Attached scsi CD-ROM sr1
[ 32.768514] sr 6:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg2 type 5
[ 32.770148] scsi 7:0:0:0: Direct-Access HUAWEI SD Storage 2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
[ 32.772460] sd 7:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg3 type 0
[ 32.773505] sd 7:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk
[ 333.302757] usb 2-2: USB disconnect, device number 3
[ 385.785124] r8169 0000:09:00.0 eth0: link up
[ 385.785139] IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): eth0: link becomes ready
[ 398.706478] r8169 0000:09:00.0 eth0: link down
[ 400.863146] r8169 0000:09:00.0 eth0: link up
[ 1212.397273] mmc0: new SD card at address aaaa
[ 1212.412069] mmcblk0: mmc0:aaaa SU02G 1.84 GiB
[ 1212.414083] mmcblk0: p1
[ 1212.509030] mmcblk0: error -110 transferring data, sector 3862264, nr 8, cmd response 0x900, card status 0x80000b00
[ 1212.509039] mmcblk0: retrying using single block read 

To find the name device name of your sd card “mmcblk0” 

Temperature monitoring of overheating PC

Many on the PC is getting overheating issue and its shutdown without warning. I windows you can use coretemp software for monitoring the heating.

In ubuntu PC there need to measure the heat in digital numbers

To easiest way to Monitor the temperature


sudo apt-get install lm-sensors

sudo sensors-detect

watch -n 2 sensors


Secure the data in external hard disk

All the external hard disk will come with the NTFS format which is easily accessed to the windows and Linux as well.The NTFS format hard disk is easily affected by the virus until you are not protected with anti-virus.

The EXT4 format which accessible only on Linux machine will never be affected by any virus and all the data also secured in 99 percent.

For example, if you have 1TB hard disk with a single partition in an NTFS format you may have a chance to lose your data.


Here are the tips for how to safely and secure the data from the virus without anti-virus.

Login to the Ubuntu machine and open Gparted tool which help to partition the hard disks. Make it different partition with 2 or 3 depending on your usage.


Here I made 4 partitions for 2TB external hard disk

/dev/sdb1 – This partition which comes as default inWindows and Linux.

/dev/sdb2 and /dev/sdb3 and /dev/sdb4 are the EXT4 partition which I made only in Linux OS.

In the terminal results:

vinothc@vinothc-ThinkPad-E450:/media/vinothc$ ls -la
total 24
drwxr-x---+ 6 root root 4096 Mar 29 08:15 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 28 2015 ..
drwxrwxrwx 39 vinothc vinothc 4096 Mar 26 17:53 Photos
drwxrwxrwx 1 vinothc vinothc 4096 Feb 15 23:28 Seagate Backup Plus Drive
drwxrwxrwx 3 vinothc vinothc 4096 Mar 27 08:21 Videos
drwxrwxrwx 5 vinothc vinothc 4096 Mar 27 08:20 workspace

But the thing is now all the ext4 partition is working only on your Linux machine and not in any other Linux machine,  even if you change the username in your machine also you are not able to write any data in your hard disk. if you want to access the other Linux machine you need to change the owner privilege access to write any data in the hard disk.

Here is the simple to tips to make your hard disk works with all the Linux machine with read-write privilege access and it is the one-time command you have to do this when you had made the partition.

open the terminal

follow the commands

cd /media/<username>
mount /dev/sdx   [here 'x' stands for device partition sdb or sdc]

mount all the partition

mount /dev/sdb1
mount /dev/sdb2
mount /dev/sdb3
mount /dev/sdb4
sudo su
chmod -R 777 <mount point>
sudo su
chmod -R 777 /dev/sdb1
chmod -R 777 /dev/sdb2
chmod -R 777 /dev/sdb3
chmod -R 777 /dev/sdb4

This command is to change the read-write privilege for all the partitions. Now your hard disk ready to use on all the Linux machine without a doubt.

I hope you this blog is helpful for you 😀

Configure Python Environment

Configure Python environment in Ubuntu machine.

create a file called and copy paste below command.

sudo apt-get install python-pip 
sudo apt-get install python-virtualenv 

# create a virtualenv 
mkdir ~/env cd ~/env virtualenv myenv 

#activate environment 
source ~/env/myenv/bin/activate 

#install jupyter notebook 
pip install jupyter

save it in your home folder and open a terminal

sudo chmod +x

after installing run this command

jupyter notebook   

open a browser http://localhost:8888


Differences on 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 3.5G 3.75G 3.9G 4G networks in India

Differences on 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 3.5G 3.75G 3.9G 4G

GSM means “Global System for Mobile Communications”

1G – First Generation
In 1982 was introduced where network signals were analogue and used Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

2G used Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Second Generation was launched in 1992 in which signals and speech channels were digitally encrypted.

Deployed in 2003 which implemented High Speed Circuit Switched Domain(HSCSD)
Data rate 236.8 kbps to 384 kbps by using Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

has very different functions like it allows simultaneous use of speech and data services at higher rates and better spectral efficiency.
3G Standard International Mobile Telecommunications IMT-2000 which is popularly known as 3G
or 3rd Generation standard for mobile phones and telecommunications services to make 3G globally applicable.
3G UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System uses “W-CDMA WideBand-Code Division Multiple Access” as main interface. Also known with other names.
In Japan called “FOMA Freedom Of Mobile Multimedia Access”.
In China known as “TD- SCDMA Time Division- Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access”.
Basically all these are variants which uses different radio interface. W-CDMA networks can give speed upto 384 kbps to 2 Mpbs maximum.

HSUPA High-Speed Uplink Packet Access upgrades the uplink for higher data transfer speed and capacity of 1.4 ,1.9 ,5.8 Mbps.
HSUPA name is given by Nokia and used in its phones only but 3GPP does not support this name.
HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access having faster speed from 1.8 ,3.6 ,7.2 to 14 Mbps.

HSPA High Speed Packet Access is a combination of HSUPA and HSDPA that improves the performance of W-CDMA and can attain speed 21 Mbps to 28 Mbps.
HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access having faster speed from 1.8 ,3.6 ,7.2 to 14 Mbps.

3.9G HSOPA Some networks dubbed it as 4G. 
This project is known as Long Term Evolution -LTE and uses OF-DMA Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Access
which will offer data rate at 170 Mbps for up-link and 320 Mbps for down-link.

4G Constitute of 4G has not been standardized yet. It is non-backward compatible with new higher frequencies bands. It is defined to be comprehensive and secure for the users. 4G will only be packet- based (all-IP) switched network. Facilities like IP-telephony (IP-based voice data), Ultra- broadband internet Access 1GBps (Gigabit speed) Support for IPV6 protocol, Gaming Services, High Definition HDTV, Streamed Multimedia and many more new services are added!!! UMTS operates on frequencies of 850/900/1700/1900/2100 MHz. Most 3G phones support at least 2 frequencies. No 3G phone available which supports all 3G frequencies. It depends on service provider what speed and frequency it adopts for its 3G network and what type of 3G compatible phone you have to fully exploit, utilize and enjoy the services


How to change the root user password in ubuntu

In an early stage of the ubuntu users forget the root password no problem, it happen sometimes. In that case they can’t able to install any new tools in his ubuntu machine. It asks root permission to install the new tools. They aren’t able to create a new user login also. So, here is the one easy way to reset the root password you just follow the below steps

you must need to boot in single user mode in your Ubuntu machine

Step 1: When you power on your ubuntu machine, press “shift” key continuously to get the grub loader screen.

Step 2: In Grub 2 menu, select the menu with Linux highlighted.

Step3: Press ‘e’ to edit the grub2 menu.

Step 4:  Move the cursor to the line that starts with “linux /boot/vmlinuz-3.2.0-23-generic-pae”.

Step 5: Change the content “ro quiet splash $vt_handoff” To “rw init=/bin/bash”.

Step 6: Press “Ctrl+x” to continue boot to in single user mode.

Step 7: Now you will get prompt of the root user.

Step 8: Change root user password, $ passwd root

Step 9: Now sync and reboot the system

$ sync
$ reboot -f

I hope you this blog is helpful for you 😀